A dance developed from a Cuban Rumba step, The Cha Cha. When the English dance teacher Pierre Lavelle visited Cuba in 1952, he realised that sometimes the Rumba was danced with extra beats. When he returned to Britain, he started teaching these steps as a separate dance.
How routines should look:
The Cha Cha Cha and the Rumba have the same basic steps, they are just danced to a different rhythm. The Rumba is romantic whereas the Cha Cha Cha is bright and lively.
It should be a cheeky dance.
Routines should include:
Synchronised movements, working in parallel with each other. The legs should be inside the body frame. Emphasis on the rear end and leg action.
Cha-cha-chá is danced to authentic Cuban music, although in ballroom competitions it is often danced to Latin Pop or Latin Rock. The music for the international ballroom cha-cha-chá is energetic and with a steady beat. The music may involve complex polyrhythms.
Styles of cha-cha-chá dance may differ in the place of the chasse in the rhythmical structure. The original Cuban and the ballroom cha-cha count is “two, three, chachacha”, “four-and-one, two, three” or “one, two, three, chacha”. The dance does not start on the first beat of a bar, though it can start with a transfer of weight to the lead’s right.
Nevertheless, many social dancers count “one, two, cha-cha-cha” and may find it difficult to make the adjustment to the correct timing of the dance, “two, three, cha-cha, one”.
The basic pattern involves the lead (usually the man) taking a checked forward step with the left foot, retaining some weight on the right foot. The knee of the right leg must stay bent and close to the back of the left knee, the left leg having straightened just prior to receiving part weight. This step is taken on the second beat of the bar. Full weight is returned to the right leg on the second step (beat three).
The fourth beat is split in two so the count of the next three steps is 4-and-1. These three steps constitute the cha-cha chasse. A step to the side is taken with the left foot, the right foot is half closed towards the left foot (typically leaving both feet under the hips or perhaps closed together), and finally there is a last step to the left with the left foot. The length of the steps in the chasse depends very much on the effect the dancer is attempting to make.
The partner takes a step back on the right foot, the knee being straightened as full weight is taken. The other leg is allowed to remain straight. It is possible it will shoot slightly but no deliberate flexing of the free leg is attempted. This is quite different from technique associated with salsa, for instance. On the next beat (beat three) weight is returned to the left leg. Then a chasse is danced RLR.
Each partner is now in a position to dance the bar their partner just danced. Hence the fundamental construction of Cha-cha extends over two bars.
The checked first step is a later development in the “international cha-cha” style. Because of the action used during the forward step (the one taking only part weight) the basic pattern turns left, whereas in earlier times Cha-cha was danced without rotation of the alignment. Hip actions are allowed to occur at the end of every step. For steps taking a single beat the first half of the beat constitutes the foot movement and the second half is taken up by the hip movement. The hip sway eliminates any increase in height as the feet are brought towards each other. In general, steps in all directions should be taken first with the ball of the foot in contact with the floor, and then with the heel lowering when the weight is fully transferred; however, some steps require that the heel remain lifted from the floor. When weight is released from a foot, the heel should release from the floor first, allowing the toe to maintain contact with the floor.
In the international Latin style, the weighted leg is almost always straight. The free leg will bend, allowing the hips to naturally settle into the direction of the weighted leg. As a step is taken, a free leg will straighten the instant before it receives weight. It should then remain straight until it is completely free of weight again.
International Latin style cha-cha
Cha-cha is one of the five dances of the “Latin American” program of international ballroom competitions.
As described above, the basis of the modern dance was laid down in the 1950s by Pierre & Lavelle and developed in the 1960s by Walter Laird and other top competitors of the time. The basic steps taught to learners today are based on these accounts.
In general, steps are kept compact and the dance is danced generally without any rise and fall; this is the modern ballroom technique of Cha-cha (and other ballroom dances).